Processes refer to changes in the individuals thought, intelligence, and language.
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Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes are all connected in the developmental task of a baby smiling at his or her mother’s touch. Biological processes produce changes in an individual’s physical nature. Cognitive processes bring changes to the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language. Socioemotional processes include changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions and changes in personality. For the baby, the biological process
has to do with the physical touch by the mother and the baby’s response to this touch. The cognitive process deals with the fact that the mother is intentionally touching the baby, something that the baby is beginning to understand. The socioemotional process for…show more content…
Cognitive processes = refer to changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and languageSocioemotional processes = involve changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality All three are tied togetherPeriods of Development
Prenatal period = time from conception to birth; nine month periodInfancy = developmental period that extends from birth to about 18-24 months of age; extreme dependence on adultsEarly childhood = developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5-6 years of age; also known as preschool years; learn to become more self-sufficientMiddle and late childhood = developmental period that extends between about 6-11 years of age; elementary school years; reading, writing, math; achievement more central themeAdolescence = developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood; entered between 10-12 years of age ending at about 18-19 years of age; begins with rapid physical changes (height and weight); development of sexual characteristics (breast size, pubic and facial hair, deepening voice); pursuit of independence; time outside family Development described as a lifelong process Issues in DevelopmentNature-nurture issue = debate about whether development is primarily influence by nature or by nurtureNature refers to an organism’s biological inheritanceNurture refers to environmental experiencesNo one today’s argue that it is only one or the otherBoth play an important roleContinuity-discontinuity issue = focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stagesNurture emphasis – continuityNature emphasis – discontinuityEarly-later experience issue = focuses on the degree to which early experiences (especially in infancy) or later experiences are the key determinants of the child’s development
Ex: early experiences affect later experiences (overcome or not)The Science of Child DevelopmentThe Importance of ResearchScientific research is objective, systematic, and testableScientific method = four step process1. Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied2. Collect research information (data)3. Analyze data4. Draw conclusionsTheories of Child DevelopmentTheory = interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and make predictionsHypothesis = a specific, testable assumption or predictionPsychoanalytic theories = describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotionAnalyze symbolic meanings of behavior; stress early experiencesFreud’s Theory
What processes produce changes in an individuals body?
Biological processes produce changes in an individual's physical nature. and weight gains, changes in motor skills, the hormonal changes of puberty, and cardiovascular decline are all examples of biological processes that affect development.
Which of the processes in the nature of development involves changes in a persons relationships with other people emotions and personality?
Cognitive development involves learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity. Psychosocial development involves emotions, personality, and social relationships.
Which domain of development examines changes in the individual's relationships and interactions with others?
Psychosocial Domain Psychosocial development involves emotions, personality, self-esteem, and relationships. Peers become more important for adolescents, who are exploring new roles and forming their own identities.
What is socioemotional process?
Social-emotional development includes the child's experience, expression, and management of emotions and the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationships with others (Cohen and others 2005). It encompasses both intra- and interpersonal processes.